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40th Anniversary, CUHK
Flower talks
Mangrove Vegetation (Mangal)

Mangroves are evergreen trees and shrubs that flourish in the intertidal forest communities of sheltered tropical or subtropical coastlines around the mouth of rivers. This term may also refer to such plant communities, but some authors would use the word "mangal" for the communities. These mangrove plants (or sometimes mangroves) face regular tidal changes and influx of both freshwater and seawater, and they possess specialized features for adaptations to this environment, creating a remarkable ecosystem in such habitat.

Environmental stresses on plants:

a) waterlogged anaerobic soil

b) submersion by seawater due to tidal changes

c) unstable muddy substratum due to alluvium from rivers and seas

d) high salt concentrations in seawater

e) desiccation due to exposure to strong sunlight

f) physiological unavailability of seawater


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